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February 2003, Issue 87       Published by Linux Journal

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Linux Gazette Staff and The Answer Gang

Editor: Michael Orr
Technical Editor: Heather Stern
Senior Contributing Editor: Jim Dennis
Contributing Editors: Ben Okopnik, Dan Wilder, Don Marti

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The Mailbag
From The Readers of Linux Gazette

HELP WANTED : Article Ideas
Submit comments about articles, or articles themselves (after reading our guidelines) to The Editors of Linux Gazette, and technical answers and tips about Linux to The Answer Gang.

H/W detection in Debian ?

Sat, 11 Jan 2003 19:06:15 +0530
Joydeep Bakshi (joy12 from

Hi all,

  1. kudzu is the DEFAULT H/W detection tool in RH & harddrake in MDK. is there anything in debian?
  2. I have installed kudzu in debian 3.0 , but it is not running as a service. it needs to execute the command kudzu manually. more over it couldn't detect my epson C21SX printer. but under MDK 9.0 kudzu detected the printer . any solution please ?

thanks in advanced.

ppp over nullmodem cable - no response to (LCP ConfReq ...)

Tue, 31 Dec 2002 16:45:02 +0100
Josef Angermeier jun. (josef.angermeier from

hi linux gazette

first thanks for your great work.

id like to connect over a serial cable to a windows 2000 ras server. i already know that the problem isnt the null modem cable, because i just could remote control my second computer while using getty and windows's hyperterminal on the other side. (btw i first tried gnu/linux's minicom instead of window's hyperterminal but it seemed to me minicom just works with a modem a the end of the cable, am i wrong or is there any other program out there which i should give a try ?) ok ive already read those Serial-* and PPP* howto but i probably missed something. further, i also set the same baud rate at the ras server side. so any idea, why i dont get any reply to my LCP ConfReq Request ??



melee:/home/josef/tmp# pppd /dev/ttyS0 nodetach
Serial connection established.
using channel 1
Using interface ppp0
Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/ttyS0
sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x143c91f8> <pcomp> <accomp>]
sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x143c91f8> <pcomp> <accomp>]
sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x143c91f8> <pcomp> <accomp>]
sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x143c91f8> <pcomp> <accomp>]

my /etc/ppp/options.ttyS0

connect 'chat -v -f /etc/ppp/scripts/'
user josef

How can we block mails from users using ipchains

Sun, 5 Jan 2003 22:33:43 -0800
Dan Wilder (SSC sysadmin)
Question by, vinod (vinod from


I would like to know how to block mails from other users on the same system.I tried using 'ipchains' & port no,but it didnt work.Please help me with this.


Perhaps you could be more specific about what you're trying to accomplish. For example:

I'll take this one to the readership as a general request for more articles about setting up mail systems to do interesting things. In fact, some things that aren't really about spam could be a fun read :) -- Heather

dual boot problem

Mon, 6 Jan 2003 14:29:33 -0500
Faber Fedor (faber from
Question by Phil Harold (Lazybum from

I installed Redhat 8.0 on an existing system that has XP pro on it. XP is on ide0 and the Redhat is on ide1 XP hard drive is fat file system. When it boots it asks go to Redhat or dos… I don’t have dos. How do I get back to the windows? What needs to be done to change the boot loader. I thought I had set it up so Linux only booted with a floppy… I guess not Thanks for any help. Phil Harold

Go ahead and choose "DOS". That will boot into the other partition which is set up (hopefully) to boot XP.

Looks normal so far. Hardly worthy of the "help wanted" section here at the Gazette ... but nope, it's a stumper. -- Heather

just before the other symbols it says:

root no verify (hd2,0) chainloader +1

hit the enter key is when the symbols come looks like greek and chinese

Custom kernel, not so custom modules

Fri, 10 Jan 2003 18:25:16 +0100
Eduardo (edlm from
An old question - he had said this relates to [[][issue 64 #16 in The Answer Gang]] - but still a stumper. We have a lot more readers now; maybe one of you knows what happened here? -- Heather

Hello all,

I have exactly the same problem described by Michael Hansen. Modules doesn't load after recompile Kernel. I'm also a newbie in Linux, but I see (If you are using red hat at least), it creates a directory /lib/modules/2.4.xcustom (in fact kernel version pass to 2.4.18custom in my case), but when you do make modules it copies to directory 2.4.x. If you rename directories the problem comes when you try to install a new driver that use uname -r command during installation to find modules directory (uname -r result is 2.4.xcustom). I don't know how solve this problem.

Best regards

ipchains vs iptables

Wed, 22 Jan 2003 14:39:11 +0100
Dean Buhrmann (d.buhrmann from

Dear Answer Gang members,

I have a linux home network which is connected to the internet through a gateway. This computer runs linux with a 2.2.18 kernel. I use IP-chains to block some unwanted incoming traffic. One of the machines runs mldonkey. This program needs the ports 4161 and 4162. I get the following error from server i contact:

ERROR: Your port 4662 is not reachable. You have a LOWID.

This port is open. The solution to this problem seems to be to redirect incoming packets from the internet for port 4662 directly to the machine where mldonkey runs.

The following iptable should do this:

iptables -A PREROUTING -t nat -p tcp -d $4 --dport 4662 -j DNAT --to

$4 is the gateway runs mldonkey

I use a 2.2.18 kernel with ipchains on the gateway. In Howto's and other documentation i can't find a way to do this with ipchains. Do you know if it's possible and how?

Please your help.

greetings Dean Buhrmann.

Articles about trevails, with details are always welcome when you solve a strange problem. Of course there are HOWTO's for ipchains and for netfilters, but perhaps we could see an article about do something complicated enough to illustrate differences that might have you prefer one or the other interface. -- Heather


Re: your mail

Mon, 20 Jan 2003 11:45:17 -0500
Ben Okopnik (the LG Answer Gang)
Question by Larry Leeds (lleeds from

I had an IBM 20G hard drive that had a lot of bogus information in the master boot record due to formatting it with 2G jumper on and then formatting with the jumper off. It wouldn't load an OS, and it locked up every time I tried to run fdisk, norton disk doctor couldn't fix it either, but your little DOS assembly program saved my hard drive.

Thank you!

Glad you found it useful, Larry. A number of people have written in with comments like yours about that particular article; I find it very pleasant that my work has benefitted that many people.

I appreciate your letting me know.

POS Software in Linux

Tue, 21 Jan 2003 21:07:25 -0500
Ben Okopnik (the LG Answer Gang)
Question by Stelian Iancu (stelian.iancu from


I was reading the December 2002 issue of LG (btw, great magazine! I've just re-discovered it, and it's fantastic!) and I saw the PC-MOS thread originated by Reilly Burke.

I remembered that I saw something like a prototype for a POS software on the net and I went searching for it. The address is and the author is no other than jwz (Jamie Zawinski).

As fas as I can see, there is only an idea and a "little prototype" (as the author describes it), but maybe this prototype can be used for further developement by somebody else.


If you need a restaurant-specific POS and don't mind going commercial (for a very small fee as compared to other POSes, actually), I have only good things to say about the ViewTouch POS <> in spite of its closed-source nature. The interface is very well thought-out and beautifully done; the layout, menu, employee, and ingredient list configuration is a snap. It supports all the popular touchscreens, industry-standard narrow printers, and all the standard cash drawers. Despite the documentation that insists on "RedHat-only" compatibility, I've run it under Debian from day one (three years or so ago), and it works fine.

My biggest concern with it, of course, is that it is closed-source. I would have liked to tweak some minor features for the client I had who was interested; as well, I wonder what would happen if the developer disappeared off into the ether... but that's the nature of that particular beast. It is, however, an interesting and well-executed option. Interestingly enough, I spotted a major restaurant near Baltimore (a Brazilian steakhouse in Columbia, MD) using it about a year ago. The employees using it didn't have any negative comments, either.

P.S. Keep up the good work!

Thanks, Stelian. That's the reality and the plan. :)


Wanted: Proofreaders

Thu Jan 30 11:24:03 PST 2003
LG Editor Iron (gazette from

LG is looking for proofreaders. The main qualifications are a good command of English grammar, a native or near-native sense of English word usage, and the ability to recognize and clarify phrases that are too academic, not understood outside their own country, or unnecessarily difficult for those with limited English ability to read.

Depending on the number of proofreaders, the workload would be at most one article per month, but more likely one article every 2-3 months. Of course, you would be able to refuse articles you don't have time to proofread, or if you're not interested in the subject.

If interested, send some samples or URLs of stuff you've written or proofread (any topic, any length) that demonstrates your wording style.

Compilation Problem in Writing Your Own Toy OS (PART II)

Thu, 19 Dec 2002 07:15:59 -0800 (PST)
Mohammad Moghal (riazdat from

Dear Sir,

"Writing Your Own Toy OS" is a Great Contribution towards knowledge.

I have tried PART I successfully.

But, after compiling part II, I booted my system from Drive A. System checked Drive A and was hangged. There was no output of the string.

Could you please help me out.

Best Regards

M. R. Moghal

Forwarding to the author, Krishnakumar R.
He fixed one of the programs somewhere in the series after it was published, but I don't remember exactly where. If you're reading on a mirror, check the main site, and see whether that program has been changed. -- Mike


Fri, 27 Dec 2002 03:37:09 -0500
Mike Orr (Linux Gazette Editor)
Question by Felix F. (felix from
Readers, please note that this was actually an exchange of mails back and forth between Mike and Felix, rather than one message which Mike responded to in gory detail. If anyone out there, either in whole or in part, takes on the Herculean task of providing paper editions of LG please let us know - we will very happily spread the word! -- Heather

Have you ever thought of publishing the gazette and require subscriptions? I would sure like to get a monthly magazine then browsing the gazette online.

We've had several requests for a print version of LG. However, the cost of producing it would be prohibitive. (Printing, postage, software to track subscriptions, customer service staff, etc. And if you want a glossy magazine rather than just a xerox copy, there's layout costs, more printer's fees, etc.) Commercial magazines like our Linux Journal can do it because most of their revenue comes from advertising, but Linux Gazette does not accept advertising (except sponsorships).

We have repeatedly asked if any readers would be willing to set up their own print-and-distribute service for LG, but nobody has offered.

What kind of equipment would be required to print-and-distribute services?

At minimum, a lazer printer, envelopes, stamps, and a list of subscribers. That's how small, do-it-yourself zines work. You'd want some kind of cover or binding unless you're just going to send a stack of loose sheets.

But mailing costs alone will soak you, especially since a single issue of LG is something like fifty printed pages. (I've never printed an issue, so that's an estimate.) Sending fifty pages via first-class mail within the US is $3-4, so that's $48/year. Would you pay $48 for LG? You may be able to get a better deal with book rate or presorted rate but you'd have to check with the post office. But how will you recoup your cost for toner cartridges, paper, printer repair/replacement (since it will wear out sooner), envelopes, and the time to write the addresses or attach labels, not to mention the time dealing with subscription requests, complaints about "I didn't receive my issue", etc?

Today many free magazines put ads into the magazine and make money to publish the magazine. It would be a good idea to maybe advertise, but I'm not sure if LG has a high number of subscribers. I can see where the management issue would be a problem (billing, distributing, etc). Hopefully one day maybe. :)

LG has a huge number of readers all over the world. I don't know the number because people who read via mirrors or off-line are uncountable. But there are mirrors in fifty countries, and I figure any country with a mirror must have a subtantial LG readership. Either that, or it at least has one LG fanatic.... :)

You bring up an interesting point. LG itself is not interested in running ads, at least not at present. I like to think of LG as an ad-free zone, a safe haven from ads. But since LG content is freely redistributable, there's nothing prohibiting a print-and-deliver service from inserting ads in their version.

Actually, our author Alan Ward in Andorra said he's seen a Spanish print version of LG on the newsstands there. I assume it was the Spanish translation of Linux Journal, which may include some LG articles.

I've seen few sites publishing their works into magazine (including ads) and subscribers did not get angry at the ads, because they understood that to publish costs money and if the work is quality it's worth subscribing for.

HAPPY NEW YEAR and good luck.

There are a few articles in LG that may not be redistributed in a commercial print publication (where "commercial" means you're charging any amount of money for it). Those articles have a message to that effect at the bottom of the article. The ones that come to mind are:

In those cases, you will have to contact the author for permission.

This page edited and maintained by the Editors of Linux Gazette
HTML script maintained by Heather Stern of Starshine Technical Services,
Copyright © 2003
Copying license
Published in Issue 87 of Linux Gazette, February 2003

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By The Readers of Linux Gazette

See also: The Answer Gang's Knowledge Base and the LG Search Engine

Two Sound Cards Under Linux

Tue, 14 Jan 2003 03:02:07 -0500
N4FWD - Tom Kocourek (tko from

The Need

As an Amateur Radio Operator, I wanted to use "QSSTV" under Linux. This program uses the DSP in a sound card to decode pictures being transmitted on Amateur Radio. However, I did not wish to give up the basic sound ability available under KDE. Thus I started reading about dual sound cards.


Searches via Google did not turn up much information on dual sound cards, just the usual "HOW TO" references on getting one sound card running. But, one key piece of information did turn up, that multiple sound drivers can coexist!

Some experimentation and...

Multiple sound cards can work together provided:

  1. Each additional sound card must be a different chip set (ie. different drivers)
  2. Each sound card must have its own IRQ and distinct control register address space

Installation checkup

At this point, you have physically installed the additional sound card and have verified that the BIOS has assigned different IRQs to the cards.

Now you have booted Linux and have logged in. In Mandrake Linux there is an integrated program called the MCC (or Mandrake Control Center). You can either use MCC or you can execute in a term window:

	$ /sbin/lsmod | less

You are verifying that different drivers have been assigned to each Sound Card. If you are not using one of the more recent distributions of Linux (such as Red Hat, Mandrake, or SuSE), you may have to alter the configuration files by hand to achieve the necessary loading of the proper Sound Card drivers.

Next, you run a mixer setting program, like KMIX. If all is ok, the program should display 2 distinct mixers. If not, then you need to recheck the configuration files.

Now for the tough part...

Many sound programs are not well written. That is to say that the program assumes that only one sound card exist in your system. These types of sloppy programs will lock up Linux and require using the reset button

Well written programs allow you to set which sound card is to be used. XMMS is a well written program. While it assumes that sound card 0 is the only sound card in the system, It does not lock down Linux. QSSTV is an even better written program in that it allows you to configure which sound card is to be accessed.

"ARTSD" is a poorly written program and MUST be disabled when you run dual sound cards in your system. Otherwise, you will be reaching for the reset button!


I am able to play my music via XMMS and Sound Card 0; while QSSTV decodes pictures using Sound Card 1 simultaneously under Linux!

rpm in debian ?

Tue, 7 Jan 2003 14:17:47 +0530
Kapil Hari Paranjape (kapil from
Question by Joydeep Bakshi (joy12 from

Hi, I am a Debian user and interested to install the rpm packages ( from RH or MDK cds ) in Debian. but is it possible to do so ? if yse , how ?

[Kapil] A debian package:
Package: alien
Section: admin
Architecture: all
Description: install non-native packages with dpkg
 Alien allows you to convert LSB, Red Hat, Stampede and Slackware Packages
 into Debian packages, which can be installed with dpkg.
 It can also generate packages of any of the other formats.
 This is a tool only suitable for binary packages.
This suggests that "apt install alien" would do the trick for you.
This works as follows. You run
   fakeroot alien -r <RPM>
This produces a .deb which can be installed.
It is a good idea to read the documentation first. In particular, please heed the warning about not installing any critical packages this way. IF (and this is a big if) some mission critical package you absolutely must have is not in Debian (stable or testing or unstable), then it is generally better to run "debmake" on the unpacked source tree to build the relevant debian package. (of course to do this you should generally have installed "build-essential").
... and created a debian/rules file (a makefile starting with
#!/usr/bin/make -f).
[Kapil] The "alien" package is largely for (boo-hiss) non-free stuff that is only available as binaries packaged as RPMs.
[JimD] It is also possible to install the debian rpm package. You can then directly use RPM commands. However, there won't be any dependency database (dbm files) so all dependency checks will fail.
At some point someone may come with with a very clever (and probably difficult to maintain) adapter that will generate a reasonable RPM/DBM database set from a Debian /var/lib/dpkg/info tree. Alas that is not in the cards for now.
'alien' is probably the best way to go in most cases.

Thanks a lot for ur valuable hints. alien is excellent. but *alien -i* command didn't check any dependency when I installed open office (making .deb from Mandrake cd ), hence it could not be started due to missing libraries.

[Kapil] Dependencies are certainly a problem for alien. The way I understand it, if you have the correct libraries installed then the dependencies are included in the .deb package produced by "alien". Otherwise "alien" only produces error messages about unmet dependencies...
... a bit of a catch 22 alright!
But if you create the .deb files and install them in the "correct" order (and assuming that there are no cross dependencies!) the binary dependencies should work out correctly. What "alien" does (I'm guessing here) is it runs "ldd" on the executables and looks for the package that supplied the relevant library. This is how it is often done during .deb creation.
Non-binary dependencies are probably unresolvable unless you can lay your hands on an LSB package---whatever that is.
The Linux Standards Base is an industry-wide effort to make life easier for companies that want to produce commercial shrinkwrap products. If they adhere to the filesystem layout and principles described there, then the package should be able to be installed on any Linux distro which also claims to be LSB compliant.
The installers haven't quite perfected this as far as to handle everybody's slight differences in initscript setup, but other than that it's not too bad. At the very least a knowledgeable system admin has no problem grafting such applications into the company-wide server. -- Heather

1) is it possible to let the kpackage to handle this type of converted .deb packages and their dependency ?

[Kapil] I don't know anything about kpackage but I would guess that if the information is not in the .deb file there is not much kpackage can do.

2) if I have a particular directory to store all these converted .deb packages then how to modify kpackage to display those packages in its tree view ? ( if it is possible at all )

[Kapil] There are some debian packages that allow you to create your private repositories - there is a sledge-hammer called "apt-move" but there may be something simpler for your requirement.
When the deb file is installed, if it has no section it will be placed in the "Obsolete and Locally Created Packages" section under aptitude. I assume kpackage has a similar feature, although I've been a bit shy of the X-windows based apt front-ends, since I prefer to have a minimum of processes running when updating my systems. -- Heather

once again thanks 4 ur solution.

[Kapil] As far as openoffice and other such packages are concerned your best bet is the "unofficial apt repositories" (which I forgot to mention in my list of stable/testing/unstable). You can find these unofficial repositories at:
I seem to remember that this site lists a site for openoffice. You can add that site to the list in /etc/apt/sources.list and you should be able to then use apt-get (or probably kpackage) to install openoffice with dependencies resolved.
Be warned that the unofficial repositories are un-signed packages and could contain trojans and other such!

Thanks 4 all ur technical info.

best regards

propagating ownership and permissions

Mon, 30 Dec 2002 08:30:09 -0500
Ben Okopnik (the LG Answer Gang)

A while back, I wrote a utility that propagates ownership and permissions from a sample file to a group of files. Imagine a situation where you have, say, several dozen documents with a scattershot list of permissions and owners/groups (since they were created by different people.) The way to "bring them into line" would be to pick a file that already has The Right Stuff - it doesn't even have to be in the same directory - and say:

cpmod /path/to/example/file *

Note that this utility is self-documenting. Its internal "man page" can be read (as long as "cpmod" is somewhere in your path) with

perldoc cpmod

If you want an actual man page, one can be easily created with

pod2man cpmod|gzip -c>cpmod.1.gz

Put the resulting file somewhere in your man directory structure (/usr/share/man/man1, perhaps).

See attached

[JimD] In newer GNU utils you can use something like:
	reference="$1"; shift
  	for i in "$@"; do
		chown --reference="$reference" "$i"
		chmod --reference="$reference" "$i"

[Ben] Very cool, Jim! I hadn't seen that one before; I was only familiar with the older versions.

[JimD] (Technically I think you can just make that for i; do ... since I think that for loops default to being in "$@" if you don't specify an explicit list. I know they default, but I'm not sure if they default to $* or "$@" --- if you care about the distinction; as usual the subtleties of soft-quoting are there to protect degenerate filenames containin whitespace!).
In other GNU utils you can use a little trickery like:
	reference="$1";  shift
	UID=$(find "$1" -maxdepth 0 -printf "%U" )
	MODE=$(find "$1" -maxdepth 0 -printf "%m" )
  	for i in "$@"; do
		chown "$UID" "$i"
		chmod "$MODE" "$i"
Ben, am I missing some subtleties here? (Other than the obviously argument counting, error checking and messages, and some getopts to provide --help, --owner-only, --mode-only etc.)

[Ben] Not so far as I can see. However, the Perl version is shorter (if you ignore the included man page.) :)

boot to windows by default

9 Jan 2003 05:16:50 -0000
David Mandala, Jim Dennis (the LG Answer Gang)
Question by anurag sahay (anuragsahay from

Hi Answer guy, I ahve two questions

1. I have linux and Windows both loaded on my system.i wanted to boot to windows by can i chang the lilo.conf file.what are the changes to be made there.

[David] The answer to your question about lilo is to edit the /etc/lilo.conf file.
Your file might look something like this:

See attached linux-and-dos.lilo-conf.txt

Cheers, Davidm
[JimD] Essentially, add a default= directive to your /etc/lilo.conf (or edit your /boot/menu.lst file if you're using GRUB). Read the lilo.conf man (and/or GRUB info) pages for more detail on that.
The Linux Documentation Project ( ) has an entire section of HOWTOs on boot loaders and related topics (about a dozen of them):

network programming - accepting data

9 Jan 2003 05:16:50 -0000
Kapil Hari Paranjape, Jim Dennis (the LG Answer Gang)
Question by anurag sahay (anuragsahay from

Hi Answer guy, I ahve two questions

2. This about unix network programming: How to accept any data from any given port.

thanking you
yours anurag

[Kapil] Have a look at the utlities "netcat" and "socat".
[JimD] You could use netcat (often named /usr/bin/nc) or socat directly (from shell scripts, etc) to listen on arbitrary TCP or UDP ports. Note: the process has to have 'root' privileges to listen on "privileged" ports -- those from 1 to 1023 inclusive (or maybe it's 1024 inclusive --- I never remember that one).
More to the point, you can read the source code to netcat or socat (included with most distributions on the "Source Code" disc or readily downloadable from many archive sites on the net. As a Debian user I find it most convenient to get most sources with a simple 'apt-get source' command. Debian tracks, index, and automatically fetches, unpacks and patches the sources for me. With an 'apt-get build-dep' command I can also have Debian fetch and install all of the packages that are required to build almost any other package from its sources (they're still working on that feature).
It makes me reluctant to hunt down the upstream sources, suitable for other distros and other forms of UNIX.
These things change far too frequently, but Google is our friend. It appears that the current canonical location for finding Hobbit's netcat sources is at:
... where he (Hobbit) seems to have an e-mail address. Perhaps he works at @Stake.
As for socat its author, Gerhard Rieger, conveniently list the package's home page in the man page that comes with the package (at least with the Debian package):
Reading the sources to these will teach you alot about UNIX network programming. In particular netcat has been around for a very long time and has had VERY FEW bugs reported against it. It's been scrutinized by thousands, probably tens of thousands of programmers.
You should also buy Richard Stevens' seminal textbook on UNIX Network Programming (Prentice Hall). Read more about that at:

Key bindings in X

Wed, 22 Jan 2003 07:51:49 +0800
jamie sims (jaymz from

Here's the fix I finally hit upon to get those F keys working in xterm. I edited a copy of /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XTerm and added the following:

See attached

I then saved it as .Xdefaults and it works very well.

You can use the .Xdefaults file in your home directory to add or override X internal resources for any application - so make sure that if you already have some features stored there, that you add this into it, instead of replacing it. -- Heather

alsa in debian

Sun, 19 Jan 2003 12:52:21 +0530
Kapil Hari Paranjape (kapil from
Question by Joydeep Bakshi (joy12 from

Hi there, u know alsa in not built in debian 3.0 by default. but alsa utils... & driver & header files are present in the 7cd set. could any one please tell me how to build the alsa modules in debian & the required packages 4 this ?

Note: there are some alsa-modules ( in the cds ) based on 2.4.16 kernel, but mine is 2.4.18

Where you got the kernel-image-2.4.18 you should also find the relevant alsa-modules-2.4.18. Anyway here is the procedure to build alsa modules for debian.

1. Use apt-get to install the relevant alsa-source package. You could also download the sources from the alsa ftp site --- I haven't tried that but it should work.

2. Install the relevant kernel source package, and the package kernel-package.

3. Unpack the kernel source and alsa-modules in /usr/src.

4. Run "make-kpkg --config=menuconfig" configure in the kernel source directory.

5. Run make-kpkg kernel-image and make-kpkg modules-image.

6. This should build a pair of compatible kernel-image and alsa-modules package files which you can install with dpkg.

7. Of course you need to edit your grub menu or lilo conf file and so on to run this kernel.

8. You can then configure alsa with alsa-conf alsa-base and so on.

Remember to set and save the mixer settings so that /etc/init.d/alsa script (which is part of alsa-base) can restore these settings.


Fri, 3 Jan 2003 11:24:26 -0800
Mike Iron Orr, Ben Okopnik (the LG Answer Gang)
Question by Joydeep Bakshi (joy12 from

pppd command shows a few strings character in RH, but in debian it shows error

" remote system needs to authenticate itself" & discontinue

[Ben] Ah, I'd missed this part. Neil is right - you don't have the "noauth" option defined in your "/etc/ppp/peers/provider" or whatever options file you're using.
[Iron] I haven't used ppp for years (but I will soon, when I set up my mom's computer), but yes, if you're dialing into an ISP you want "noauth". Otherwise your Linux box will require authentication from the server, which it won't do. The server thinks *it's* trusted and *you're* the one who has to authenticate yourself. And even if it was willing to authenticate itself, how could it? It doesn't have a password to authenticate itself with. The (nonexistent) password the servers would authenticate themselves with is different than the user password you authenticate yourself with.
If people are dialing into your Linux system, then you want authorization for those calls.

Thanks 4 the solution, it is working now.

Is that your FIN_WAIT Answer?

Mon, 13 Jan 2003 19:00:25 -0800
Jim Dennis (the LG Answer Guy)

I am using RedHat Advanced Server 2.1, Kernel 2.4.9 and am having the following problem:

If I log on as userA via a telnet session and run Test_pgm and then disconnect the telnet session by closing the window instead of properly logging out, this is what is shown from the ps command:

userA 8505     1  0 14:00 ?        00:00:00 login -- userA
userA 8506  8505  0 14:00 ?        00:00:00 -bash
userA 8540  8506 87 14:00 ?        00:00:42 Test_pgm

Notice that there is no longer a TTY associated with the running program or the original login and the PPID of the login has been inherited by process ID#1. Furthermore, if I do a top command, the results show that the CPU Idle % is zero, with the Test_pgm using up all of the CPU %. The load average goes through the roof. I've seen it up close to 30.0. However, the system's performance does not seem to be effected by me or by any of the users. These processes are not listed as zombies and are never cleaned up by the system unless I kill the login process or restart the server.

Most of this seems normal (for a program that's ignoring SIGHUP). The loadavg number seems odd.

This scenario happens whether the user is running an in-house 'C' program or an operating system utility such as Redhat's setup. Within our own 'C' programs, I have tried to capture a terminating signal, using the signal() command, but I am not seeing any of the signals that I would expect to see, such a SIGTERM or SIGHUP.

Does anyone have any ideas as to how to tell RedHat to take down the processes associated with a telnet when a tty disappears?

Thanks in advance.

in.telnetd should be sending a SIGHUP to the process when the TCP connection is closed (including when the keepalive fails?).
Run 'netstat -na' and see if the TCP connection is lingering in FIN_WAIT state. This could be a case where your (probably MS-Windows) telnet client is failing to properly perform the three-way disconnection handshaking that's required of TCP. (I recall problems with some MS Windows FTP clients resulting in similar symptoms on high volume public FTP servers).
Try it with a UNIX telnet client.
Try it with ssh.
If it works with ssh, perhaps you can use that as leverage with your users and management to abandon this insecure and deprecated protocol! (PUTTY is a very good, and free, ssh client for MS Windows operating systems. There are many others).
Other than that, I would try upgrading the kernel (2.4.9 was pretty miserable under memory load) and watch one of these sessions with tcpdump and strace (so you can correlate what's happening on the wire with what's happening in the process). Upgrading to RH 7.3 might also be good since the compilers and libraries in 7.1 and 7.2 had ... issues.
Without knowing more about what Test_pgm is supposed to do, I can't immediately suggest any other workarounds.

direct rendering for nvidia RIVA 128

Sun, 19 Jan 2003 00:13:51 +0100
Yann Vernier (yann from
Question by, Scott Frazier (rscottf from

I have a nvidia velocity 128 video card, which uses the RIVA 128 accelerator chip. I'm running Mandrake 9.0, which sets it up with glx (3D capability), but with no direct rendering (uses software rendering). Needless to say this REALLY slows it down for games. Does anyone know how I might resolve this? I've tried changing an entry in the XF86Config file, in the MODULES section. I added the line Load "dri", to no avail. I'm pretty sure the card is dri capable, as it is able to do bus mastering, which is a must for this.

Sorry to disappoint you, but last time I checked there was no DRI driver for the Riva 128. It's among the earliest nVidia chips, and nVidia's own binary-only driver only supports TNT or later (two models newer). There was a partly accelerated Mesa-based GLX implementation for XFree86 3 that supported it, however, called Utah-GLX. You may be able to run that, but you'd obviously lose out on all other new features of XFree86 4.

xcdroast post cdrom mount problem

Fri, 10 Jan 2003 17:32:51 -0500
Question by Brian (bbertsch from

hello, i'm a recovering os/2 user. i used it today, and i may have to tomorrow... but i can stop any time i want to.. but my modem....

Anyway, after i use xcdroast, (which i am getting used to, under RH8-KDE) i am unable to check the cdrom just made because the cdrom will not mount. (ide double cheapo brand 48x, works great). i have to use the newly-made cd on my os/2 machine to check it. my friends laugh at me.

thanks, brian

[JimD] You probably need to change /dev/cdrom to be a symlink to /dev/scd0 or something like that.
Linux normally handles your ATAPI CD-R drive via a SCSI emulation layer. Once this layer is active (possibly via a loadable module) then all access to the CD has to go through the SCSI device nodes (/dev/sg* for writing, and /dev/scd0 for mounting CDs).
Try that. Try this command first:
mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/scd0 /mnt/cdrom
... from a root shell prompt.